English Additional Language/Dialect  |  English Second Language  |  English Language Learners

Print Environments and Comprehensible Input

The following comment by Stephen Krashen, from the University of Southern California, who has extensively studied how students learn a second language, was made in 1999. It remains, and perhaps is even more relevant today.

"We must vastly improve the print environment in our bilingual programs. Reading for meaning, especially voluntary reading, is the major source of literacy competence. Yet one study of libraries in schools with bilingual programs found there was, on average, only one book in Spanish for each Spanish-speaking child.
Summer 1999"

Language-flooded classrooms (a characteristic of my WTT methodology), 'wallpapered' with visual/written records of group-negotiated work support children's literacy learning, especially those children from oral cultures.



Krashen is known for his 'comprehensible input' theory of L2 learning. It makes sense, doesn't it? But how much comprehensible input is available to our L2 learners in either English immersion or in Bilingual classrooms?

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